PHB/SGO Abstracts


Student Leadership Development;

The Political Handbook


Student Government Operations


The Guide to Candidacy, Campaigning, Leadership, and Management of All Types of Student-Controlled Organizations with Special Section on Advisory Functions


Price and ordering information. How to Order  


Abstracts of each chapter, section, or appendix


Note: The latest edition contains 730  pages of text  (exactly), including 23  pages of index and a 18  page Glossary of Political Terms


Review:  The Political Handbook for Student Government Operations           "This book provides a helpful guide to candidacies, campaigning, leadership, management, and other issues related to fair and efficient student government. Though geared toward student leaders, the book also features an advisory section for school faculty and administrators."   -  NEA Today Magazine.  

[Note: This review was of the 1st edition, (1997) when the PHB/SGO contained 136 pages. The latest edition (2016) contains 730 pages.]

 Review:  "THE MIDWEST BOOK REVIEW:      The Education Shelf:           Now in a newly updated, reorganized and expanded ninth edition [ it is now in the 15th edition], "The Political Handbook For Student Government Operations" by Henry Landa (formerly with the Wisconsin Technical College System and currently adjunct faculty member , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) is a definitive, comprehensive, and thoroughly "user-friendly" instructional reference on every aspect [of] student government and activities from candidate selection, to leadership styles, to organizational configuration, to the role of faculty advisors. 

"The Political Handbook For Student Government Operations" will show aspiring and practicing student government members on "what-to-do", "how-to-do-it", and "why-you-do-it" issues and insights that range from "Candidacy & Campaigning" (of special note is the role of the campaign manager and the necessity of winning office), to "Leadership" (dealing with authority and the art of delegation), to "Management" (organizational generalities, techniques, and [the] education institution bureaucracy); "Offices and Officers" (descriptions and definitions, operational guidelines and tricks-of-the-trade, [51 offices/officers are covered]); "Advisors" (students making use of advisors and guidelines for advisors).  "The Political Handbook For Student Government Operations" is enhanced with the further inclusion of a Readers and Reference chapter, a Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations, and an Appendix of six-five [as of the start of 2017, in the 19th edition, there are 92 articles] articles offering techniques, detail, and "obscure topics" of factors and issues that can make or break a student government officer.

"The Political Handbook For Student Government Operations" is virtually unique in the field and should be considered a critically important core reference for all college and university library Student Government reference and resource collections."



  The Political Handbook for Student Government Operations  is a compilation of the practical methods, techniques, and tools of the political trade as applied to obtaining leadership and successfully managing student controlled organizations.

  This well-reviewed work draws on the principles of political, organizational, and behavioral science as applied to effective student governance.

  It is organized as a reference (with an extensive 23 page index) for quick consultation or it may be read, cover-to-cover (if one has the leisure time) to provide a comprehensive education in politics, organization, leadership, and management of student activities and government.




The primary function of student government is the education of the next generation of leaders ... industrial, commercial, governmental, academic, etc.

"When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much he had learned in 7 years."  -  Mark Twain

Opportunities to enter into and learn from student government and activities are limited by chance, naiveté and mainly by ignorance. This acclaimed work, now in its fifteenth (15th) edition, attempts to correct the last limitation (ignorance) and reduce the first (chance). 

This is the first book, long overdue, to address the political, leadership, and managerial aspects of the student extra-curricular activity. It is fast becoming the classic of student organization governance and operations.



I 1 - Justification: Why this book exists* and what need it fulfills; explanation of the organization of the book; and how to get the most out of the book based on various user needs. 452 words, 2 pp                          *It is a what-to-do, how-you-do-it, and why-you-do-it book.

I 2 - The Game ... Playing the Game of Politics: Explains what the game of student politics and activities is and how to decide if you want to participate; a self-assessment; steps in entering "The Game". 1563 words, 2 pp

I 3 - What is Student Government?: An explanation of the several parts of student government, which includes (1) the Legislative (making the rules), (2) the Executive (running all of the activities), (3) Judicial (ruling on laws and behavior), (4) the Press (the Fourth Estate is explained, historically), and (5) the Faculty Advisor, a pivotal person in the greater scheme of things. 2406 words, 3 pp

I 4 - The Credible Candidate: A self-assessment of the potential candidate, which explores three basic requirements: Competence; Exposure; and Support.       Competence assessment covers experience, knowledge, and personality.      Exposure touches on notoriety, networks, associations, and methods used to increase notoriety.      Support explores influential persons of some power, opinion makers, and campaign workers and organization. The answers to the questions posed in this chapter will influence the decision to stand for office (be a candidate) or to decline to run (for office).  722 words,3 pp

I 5 - Transfer of Learning: The psychological concept as applied to learning from student activities and government and transferred to real life (after school) and the job or profession. Student government and activity leadership offers "The Unique Student Activity Managerial Experience" whereby people are motivated by non-monetary incentives. Topics touched upon include: The Managerial Triad; Types of Knowledge; Career Applications (w/ an example of commercial and industrial intelligence as related to political intelligence). 1763 words, 4 pp


I 6 - Why?  Questions of Student Government, Activities, & office: A brace of questions are posed; e.g., Why join an organized  group? Why join any extracurricular activity? Why join student government? Why aspire to office, in any sort of organization?

These questions are answered relative to organizations, extracurricular activity, student government, office(s), advantages, and disadvantages of participating. 1001 words, 3 pp


I 7 - On Philosophy; Being a Politician: All persons, groups (organized or not), institutions, corporations, governments, et al. are driven by some philosophy, well- or ill-defined. This chapters explores the great range of philosophies that exist in a person relative to his or her view of the office as a job-of-work, a career, a profession, a trade, of a calling. Also discussed is "the natural", inherently skilled and competent holder of an office. 2027 words, 4 pp


section I sums: 9934 w, 21 pp

Candidacy and Campaigning

C 1 - Campaign Organization: How a campaign is managed; detail in assessing candidacy, constituency, canvassing for votes, and the nomination process. 4117 words, 10 pp

C 2 - The Campaign Manager: Assessing the need for a campaign manager (CM) and things to look for in a CM; overall view and detail of the activities of the CM. Selection of a good CM, early in the game, usually spells the difference between victory and defeat. 3491 words, 8 pp

C 3 - Ethics: Much of the content of this short chapter is common sense, but it must be stated explicitly. A trail of dubious acts often follows a candidate for many years. 1188 words, 2 pp

C 4 - Campaigning: Advice, in great detail, on what campaigning is and how to do it; check lists of critical activities are offered ... "The Devil is in the Details!" 2938 words, 4 pp

C 5 - Communications: Defining and explaining the process of getting information between individuals and organizations; tips on improving and refining communicating with people. [This chapter does not adequately cover e-mail; see the Appendix A 37 - E-mail, the Internet, & Websites, A 41 and A 42, Webmastering] 802 words, 2 pp

C   6 - Media: defining the mass media and publicity; how to manage it. [This chapter does not adequately cover websites; see Appendices A 41 - Web mastering the Detail of an S.G.A. Website and A 42 - Web mastering the Detail of a Campaign Website.] 2620 words, 6 pp.

C 7 - Image: Illusion and Reality: It is recognized, generally, that the reality in short-run politics is unknown and that elections are based upon wide-spread illusion. Image building and maintenance (of the image) become all-important in winning elections. 919 words, 2 pp

C 8 - Intelligence, Espionage, and Dirty Tricks: A frank and comprehensive discussion, which defines and explains this triad and places it in a proper context relative to political operations; counter intelligence and campaign security are also included. 4304 words, 8 pp.

C 9 - Lobbying: defining, explaining, developing, and executing lobbying methods ensures that proposals have a better chance of being enacted; useful advice for all kinds of organizations where the bureaucracy (which is found everywhere) can be managed with greater satisfaction and results. 1415 words, 4 pp

C 10 - The Press: a two-part chapter starting with quotations on various views of the Press, from the New Testament (2 Corinthians 6:8) through Adolph Hitler and Mao-Tse-tung giving the views of democratic systems as compared to totalitarian regimes. The second part includes a list of do's and don'ts, e.g., "1. Do not assume the press is a friend or foe.", "3. Expect  criticism, not praise.", "10. Don't lie to the press.", "11. Be prepared ..." 1331 words, 3 pp

C 11: The Campaign Speech:  [School campaigns fall into two categories relative to "The Campaign Speech": (1) Where no campaign speech is needed at all since the candidate is well-known and the campaign machinery has assured victory and (2) Where a good speech ... and all the skills required, is absolutely necessary. This chapter provides a solid foundation.]  Managing the Campaign Speech - the Process; Making the Opportunities (for making a campaign speech); Objective(s); Content; The Basic Speech; Humor; The Speaking Voice (and Posture, Gestures, Dress ... the Total Image); Preparation; Technique; Arrangements; Time management; the Advance (Man, Woman, or Person); The Introduction; A Sample Introduction; A Checklist; Readings (a study & reference list of publications to consult); The Elevator Speech     5813 words & 13 pp

section C: 28,938 w, 62 pp



L 1 - Authority: defining and explaining authority and its theoretical bases; explanations of types and aspects of authority. A sampling of authority topics: Detailed or Broad, Consolidated or Divided, Implied rather than Explicit, Formal or Informal, Line or Staff, Centralized or Decentralized, Delegated to an Individual or Committee, Limits of Authority, Responsibility, Delegation (of Authority), Splintered Authority. 2420 words, 3 pp

L 2 - Leadership Styles: discussion of the various and clearly defined styles of leading based upon the personality and world view of the manager/leader. Three important aspects which define success are "Time-rise to Performance" (ramp-up time), "Achievement level" (of the organization), and "Level of satisfaction (by members) within the group". These aspects are discussed within the context of the various styles of leadership: Diplomatic, Persuasive, Democratic-Participative, Consultative, Autocratic-Authoritarian, Laissez-faire, and Pseudo-Styles. 3117 words, 8 pp

L 3 - Delegation: [This topic is treated in this separate chapter due to its importance to managers and leaders. This chapter could be the most important reading that any present or future manager will ever read.] Among the most potent skills that a manager can possess, the ability to delegate properly is at or near the top. Included are the steps in the preparation for and execution of delegation. 1444 words, 4 pp

section L: 6981 w. 15 pp



M 1 - Types of Student Organizations: Clubs, committees, living units, co-ops, and operating and service units of all types are discussed, in general and in detail. 5688 words, 9 pp

M 2 - Management vs. Leadership: An emphasis on the use of volunteers in student activities; Management as contrasted with Leadership; Leadership Characteristics; Charismatic Leadership; Supervision; Tapping the Talent (of subordinates, that is); Schools of Management Thought (listed and discussed are: The Classical School, (1) Management Process School and (2) Empirical School; The Behavioral School, (3) Human Behavior School and (4) Social System School; The Management Science School, (5) Decision Theory School and (6) Mathematical School) ... of which are used by competent managers; The College of Hard Knocks ... Is Experience the Best Teacher?; No Salaries (an emphasis on why dealing with volunteers in the student setting is good training for supervision on the job). New chapter for 2008, 1663 words, 4 pp.

M 3 - Conduct of Meetings: The formal organization meeting with its rules of order and the less-formal business meeting are explained with many rules offered to make these affairs less onerous and more productive. [Roberts Rules of Order are not covered. Any public library has a small trove of useful and diverse guides on this topic. It is recommended that the organization member, manager, or leader acquire a personal copy of the Roberts Rules of Order, which can be found in sufficient variety in any good bookstore. And, at reasonable cost.] [Also see appendix A 50 - Meeting procedures for Executive Councils, Cabinets, & House Councils (abstracted below) for a discourse on the third type of organizational meeting among executives or officers, solely.]     2188 words, 4

M 4 - Principles of Management, a primer in: A rather lengthy chapter that lays down the theoretical bases of management, in the classical sense, and explains, in detail, planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Many managers follow the principles intuitively, based on experience, without realizing the fundamentals. This chapter lays it out and explains it. New addition for 2008: General Principles of Organizational Management (reference to the writings of Henri Fayol)  5,091 words, 11 pp.

M 5 - Management Effectiveness: A self-help chapter on how to improve your performance as a manager; habits to develop, time management, focusing on results, building on your strengths, setting priorities and concentrating on critical tasks, task vs. people orientation, learning how to make effective decisions.2683 words, , 5 pp

M 6 - The Bureaucracy: Since we are surrounded by bureaucracy and since it has negative connotations, it is proper that "bureaucracy" be defined and explained ... and then, learn how to not only cope with it but to use it efficiently. 1228 words, 3 pp

M 7 - Budgets and the Budgeting Process: Defining and explaining budgets and the process of budgeting; preparation for making up budgets. [Since most managers must protect their budget and, hopefully, increase it, it is worthwhile becoming familiar with Lobbying to get what you want (in your budget). See C 9 -Lobbying.]  Also, see appendix article A 71, The Budget Manual3896 words, 10

M 8 - Auditing and Audits: Defined; the Need for Audits (explained); Records required; Procedural steps. Auditing keeps an organization honest and efficient. Auditing provides good experience for the future manager. 1841 words, 4 pp

M 9 - Committees: Definition; Explanation; Sizing of committees; Conduct of meetings; Decentralization via Subcommittee, Internal Organization of Committees, and (use of) Organization Charts. 2464 words, 5 pp

M 10 - Public Relations: A total view of the PR business plus detail on the relationship between the PR flaks and top organizational leadership; the role in advising the leadership. 2313 words, 5 pp

M 11 - Presentation: the Art, Science, and Technique of Getting Your Idea Across: The ability to sell a product, service, project, budget item, or idea to a group is an important "sales" tool. Every chairperson, officer, and manager should have a finely honed skill in presentations. Topics include: The Audience Perspective; Factors or Elements of a Presentation; Typical Presentation Situations (a nicely-defined listing); The Formal Presentation; A Team Approach (identifies the preparation for a group effort); Technology, Old and New (the hardware that can be used, with cautionary tips, in a good presentation); Content of the "Compleat" Presentation; Tips on the Professional Conduct of a Presentation; The Budget hearing - an especially rigorous affair, which justifies special treatment, here; Hard Data Requirements; Lobbying (the applied art & science); Knowledge of the Committee; Don't Waste Their Time. 4,266 words, 10 pp.

M 12 - Training, Training Programs, and Trainers: the Theory, Organization, & Techniques: All you need to know (for a start) about executing that most important function of a manager (integral to the Staffing function): Training the members of the organization to carry out the chartered mission. Topics include: Rationale; Training vs. Education; Why bother with Training? ... Specifics (a list of nine reasons!); Curriculum (how to build one); the Lesson Plan; Types of Training (classroom, field demonstration; vestibule; On-the-Job; Formal vs. Informal; Safety; Competency Based Education (C.B.E.); Job enrichment & job enlargement; Lateral moves; Assistant-to positions; Orientation; Principles of Learning (Readiness, Exercise, Effect, Operant Conditioning); Class (small groups); Methods (Lecture, Dialog; Answering questions; Conference; Case (studies); Incident report; Simulation (off the actual site); Role-Playing; Hands-On training; Overlearning; a model training program; Instructional Aids (Chalkboard, motion pictures, Video & DVD, Flip charts); a bit of Ceremony at the End (of training) and a Piece of Paper (for the trainee's wall); presentation (of certificates, etc.) 4792 words, 11pp

section M: 38,113 w,  81 pp

Officers and Offices

Comment: All student organizations, from the very small (junior high school) to the enormous (university) associations have functions. Listed in The Political Handbook for Student Government Operations are an extraordinary number of positions; far more than the typical student politician or operator may have imagined. It is worthwhile to identify these functions (associated with the offices listed below) and fill them! This action will not only expand the grasp of how organizations work (for the student), but will retain them. Too many students join a group; find that they are ignored; and leave. This occurs while the officers are overburdened with the many functions that need to be attended to. Chapter L 3, Delegation examines and explains how to use this mostly untapped resource ... the ordinary member(s).


O section; Descriptions of Officer Positions, in detail:  Title variations used to name the various officers; Position in the organization and Authority; Job description; Job specification; Guidelines for actions and operations; Tricks-of-the-Trade (useful techniques and details that make the job easier and more efficient).

[This new section, "O", for Officers covers each position, in great detail. Identified are some forty-six  (46) positions from the President or Chairperson (O 2), down through all positions in a parliament, subcommittee chairpersons, and ending with numerous operational and managerial positions within student activities and operating (service) groups (O 47). This entire section of forty-six offices replaces the former (and now obsolete) Chapter M 2 - Officers; Duties and Qualifications, which offered brief descriptions of a limited number of offices.

 The new "O" section chapters are intended to supply profuse detail, which should provide the office holder (grizzled or brand-new) with much-improved skills. And, solid preparation for advancing into other offices.] 4566 words,  9 pp

O 2: President or Chairperson: 1350 words, 3 pp

O 3: Vice President or Vice Chairperson: 1207 words, 3 pp

O 4: Treasurer: A chapter devoted entirely to the office. Topics: (see "O section;", above) Tools of the Trade - journal, cash-book, ledger, strong and lockable file cabinet, receipt book, voucher pad. 1666 words , 7 pp

O 5: Recording Secretary  2310 words, 5 pp 

O 6: Corresponding Secretary  867 words , 2 pp

O 7: Executive Secretary  930 words , 2 pp

O 8: Financial Secretary  716 words, 2 pp

O 9: Parliamentarian: 857 words, 2 pp   

O 10: Sergeant-at-Arms: 915 words, 2 pp

O 11: Librarian: 1790 words, 4 pp

O 12: Historian: 950 words, 2 pp

O 13: Archivist:  1315 words, 3 pp

O 14: Curator: 856 words, 2 pp

O 15: Chaplain: 445 words, 1 p

O 16: Doorkeeper: 986 words, 2 pp

O 17: Administration Manager: 779 words, 2 pp

O 18: Activities Committee Chairperson: 644 words, 2 pp

O 19: Athletics Committee Chairperson: 682 words, 2 pp

O 20: Business Manager: 1285 words, 3 pp

O 21: Facilities Committee Chairperson: 1248 words , 3 pp

O 22: Finance Committee Chairperson: 874 words , 2 pp

O 23: Marketing Manager: 1781 words , 4 pp

O 24: Membership Manager: 1432 words , 4 pp

O 25: Operations Manager: 1274 words , 3 pp

O 26: Personnel Manager: 1197 words , 3 pp

O 27: Program Chairperson: 871 words,, 2 pp

O 28: Public Relations Director: 287 words, 1 p  [A lengthy discourse on P.R. is found in chapter M 10, Public Relations

O 29: Publicity Manager: 960 words , 3 pp

O 30: Scholastic Chairperson: 1693 words , 4 pp

O 31: Accountant: 689 words , 2 pp

O 32: Captains: 586 words, 2 pp

O 33: Public Information Officer: 1133 words, 3 pp

O 34: Intelligence Chief: 686 words, 2 pp

O 35: Security Chief: 773 words, 2 pp

O 36: Social Affairs Secretary: 817 words, 2 pp

O 37: Spokesperson: 966 words, 3 pp

O 38: Transition Team Leader: 685 words, 2 pp

O 39: Webmaster: 721 words, 2 pp

O 40: Auditors: 1289 words, 3 pp

O 41: The Representative: 1267 words, 3 pp

O 42: The Legislator: 3801 words, 8 pp.

O 43: Election Commissioner & Election Observer (Poll Watcher) 2970 words, 7 pp

O 44: Floor Chairperson; Wing Chairperson 1938 words, 4 pp

O 45: Comptroller: 975 words (estimated), 2 pp.

O 46: Canvass Manager / Sweep Manager: 814 words (estimated), 2 pp.

O 47: Inspector General: 2,705 words, 6 pp.

O 48: Chief of Staff: 1285 words, 3 pp.

O 49: Assistant-to: 851 words, 2 pp.

O 50: -Athletic Chairperson: 912 words, 2 pp.

O 51: Social Chairperson: 778 words, 2 pp.

O 52: Activities Chairperson: 553 words, 2 pp.

section O: 63,927 words, 153 pp 


Advisor (& Advising)

Advisor 1: Making Use of Advisors: A chapter written from the point-of-view of the student operator/leader on how to manage the relationship with the faculty advisor. Generally speaking: take advantage of this handy source of help, don't ignore it. A list of rules to be studied, considered, and applied. [It is worthwhile for the faculty advisor to be familiar with the content of this chapter, also.]  489 words, 2 pp

Advisor 2: Guidelines for Advisors: A practical approach to making the most of what is too often considered to be an added, unwanted duty of the faculty. This activity identifies easily recognizable advantages and opportunities, which ought to be pursued. The chapter is written from the point-of-view of the faculty advisor, with some career aspects discussed. [Naturally, alert student leaders will also familiarize themselves with the tips offered.] 2276 words, 5 pp

section Advisor: 2765 w, 7 pp

Appendices  [We finally got this word (in the plural form) right.]

A 1 - Selecting the Right Group for You: What goes on in various groups; A General Exposition on what may be learned from each type of organization: A discussion of what the various organizations do, how they serve their members, and what you can learn from the various types.

The six easily identifiable types are: 

(1) parliaments, e.g., student senates, councils, 

(2) committees, 

(3) clubs, 

(4) housing unit organizations, 

(5) operating units or service organizations, and 

(6) co-operatives. In considering an organization to join, using a framework for interviewing the organization chairperson is a worthwhile effort. Joining the wrong (for you) outfit is almost worse than not joining any since your time may be wasted. Conversely, the chairperson ought to be prepared to judge whether the group and recruit will make a good fit. Both angles are covered in this appendix. 3063 words, 6 pp

A 2 - Eight  Questions (of Governance): (1) What power do you have? (2) From whom did you get your power? (3) How do you exercise your power? (4) In whose interests is it exercised? (5) Do you know the limits of your power? (6) To whom are you accountable? (7) How can we get rid of you? (8) Who is watching (what you are doing)? Each of the above general questions are followed by more explicit questions, which will help the leader/manager more truly judge her/his position and power (authority). 731 words, 3 pp.

A 3 - Student Participation at a Large University: A statistical examination of the participation in a dormitory-based student association which indicates the massive opportunities for service and of being served in an active and progressive student government organization. Based upon a study at the University of Wisconsin. 833 words,  2 pp

A 4 - Printing and Copying: An explanation of the various methods of producing copy at various volume levels and of the cost of copying. Although E-communication is expanding and becoming more pervasive, black ink on plain paper still remains paramount. 3123 words, 5 pp

A 5 - The Mailer Form: An explanation of the use of a little-known, but very economical method of using the traditional mail to inform members of a group. The mailer, which usually travels by U.S. Mail, campus mail, interdepartmental mail, or is hand-carried, is still useful where e-mail doesn't exist. [Believe it or not, some folks are not wired to the Internet!] And, it also supplements e-mail. 50 words, 1 p

A 6 - The Mailer Example: A two-page (front and back) sample of what a mailer looks like. This format can also be used as a pattern for an E-mailed meeting notice. [It makes a useful template.] 191 words, 2 pp

A 7 - Negative Campaigning: A dissertation on what negative campaigning is (and it ain't all bad), how to manage it (coming at you and going back), with extensive witty, and useful quotations to take to heart. An example: "If the Republicans stop telling lies about us, we will stop telling the truth about them." - Adlai E. Stevenson 1221 words, 3 pp

A 8 - Enlightened Self-Interest: Explained ... as contrasted with narrow self-interest (short-sightedness). 252 words, 1 p

A 9 - Charisma and Charismatic Leadership: Starting with a lengthy letter from subordinate officers, imploring George Washington to withdraw his resignation, this chapter discusses how charisma, as a god-given talent, is viewed and ought to be considered. 1091 words, 2 pp

A 10 - Organizational Incentives - Why people join, stay, and leave organizations: A listing, albeit brief, of why people join, remain, and leave, which should give both leaders and advisors concern about how they are leading. Organizations that attract and hold large numbers of members for prolonged periods provide the physical and psychological rewards that are valued by most persons. (Also see appendix A 43, Recruitment, Orientation, Integration, Utilization & Retention) 1192 words, 2 pp

A 11 - Span of Management: A listing (17) of the factors which determine how many persons can be effectively managed. [Formerly called, "Span of Control".] This topic could be handled nicely by a lengthy essay since it is crucial relative to how we organize our activities in industry, commerce, government, and organizations in general. 1190 words, 2 pp

A 12 - Letter of Welcome (to new living unit residents): A sample letter, that was sent out to new residents of a dormitory, which starts the orientation and assimilation process ... the bringing into the fold of the newcomers, the outsiders. Obviously, this process of assimilation will benefit the newcomers and the organization when actively pursued. The top person or persons set the tone and can delegate part of the function by using a formal process and even a formal office. An active film society put a Personnel Manager position into its constitution for the express purpose of recruiting, orienting, and integrating new people into the group. 927 words, 2 pp

A 13 - Ballot Design & Sample: Tips on making the ballot clear, easy to use, and how to avoid mistakes in ballot design. 799 words,  3 pp

A 14 - Logo - instant recognition: An explanation and extensive discussion of an organizational trademark, logo or logotype. When literature of all types is circulated, recognition is enhanced by an easily recognized and widely-know logo; tips on good design and things to avoid. 1156 words, 2 pp

A 15 - The Press / News Release: An example of a news release and rules for the use of the release of information to the media. This is an important tool of publicity. 917 words, 3 pp

A 16 - Cliques - An analysis: Cliques form naturally in all groups. These small groups, often well-organized, control the fortunes and activities of a much greater populace ... and are often self-serving. Breaking  the hold of a clique on an organization is difficult but not impossible. It takes political knowledge and organization to pull of the breaking of a clique; some tips are offered. 1167 words, 3 pp

A 17 - Leadership Characteristics: A listing from various authorities, including the author, of the characteristics of the ideal leader. 229 words, 1

A 18 - The Operating Manual - the guide to managing an activity (the how-to-do-it book): One of the most useful exercises, in writing, for a student is to pull together an operating manual for an organization or for one of its common and continuing activities. An operating manual provides a consistent, single source of information on what-to-do, how-to-do-it and, hopefully, why-you-do-it. Most industry and commerce has been woefully backward in producing written guides to operations. The result is that basic knowledge is lost, limited information is handed down verbally, and innovation stays with the creator, rather than providing for continual improvements. This section explains the development of the operation manual. 1028 words, 3 pp

A 19 - the Annual Report - a tool of education, understanding organizational history, and operational improvement: How to write and use the annual report, which is a most underestimated tool. 1056 words, 2 pp

A 20 - Personal Habits and Care; Working on the Total Image: Planning and Preparation; Dress; White Socks on Men!; Personal Care (of your body); References. 1,663 words, 4 pp.

A 21 - The Problem Solving Procedure - a management tool: Here is the clearest and simplest problem solving approach, distilled from 50 years as a student of management and 30+ years of teaching industrial engineering and management. Other approaches may be more glib, but this one does it all and isn't too cute! 618 words, 1 p

A 22 - Transition: Coming In; Going Out: How to manage a smooth and comprehensive change of the leadership in an organization as seen by the incoming officers-elect, the outgoing officers, and the faculty advisor. The information, which ought to be transferred and how to arrange the transition to execute a seamless transfer of leadership is covered in detail. 4 pp., 1770 words

A 23 - the Charter: Authorization to Exist and Function: An explanation of the charter as an enabling legal instrument with limitations and the role of the advisor. 431 words, 1 p

A 24 - Rules of Organization: An extensive discussion of what the basic rules are and how these function: Constitutions, By-Laws, Rules of Order, Standing Rules, and Systemic Rules are defined and explained. 1870 words, 3 pp

A 25 - the Constitution: the Fundamental Law: Defined and outlined with an example form. 1765 words, 2 pp

A 26 - By-Laws: Definition, discussion and elaboration, and the process of making by-laws. 806 words, 2 pp

A 27 - Rules of Order: An explanation of rules of order, why they are important, and how to become familiar with their use; includes some readings and references. 969 words,  2 pp

A 28 - Standing Rules: An explanation and examples. 561 words, 1 p

A 29 - Systemic Rules and the Management Triad: All organizations operate under a system of rules, whether these are recognized or not. The management triad consists of three factors: behavior, technology, and institutional rules. The institutional rules affect and mold behavior and impinge upon the technology. Eight (8) characteristics of good systemic rules are listed. 1180 words, 2 pp

A 30 - The Executive Order - an expedient needing careful control: A well-designed executive order arrangement allows operating officers to act with dispatch in unusual conditions or where it is very difficult to consult in an emergency with the legislative branch. Automatic oversight and prompt (after the act) review is specified to prevent misuse of executive action. The procedure and the follow-up are described in detail. 553 words, 2 pp

A 31 - Statistics: An elementary discourse on statistics and usage in student government and activities. Statistics are useful in measuring and justifying student-funded activities [and justifying increases in budgets]. 2470 words, 5 pp

A 32- Bargaining, Negotiation & Compromise: Advice on how to manage this common and vital process, including a thirteen step guide. 1694 words, 4 pp.

A 33 - Succession: The Problem of Replacing Officers: Replacing officers is a critical factor in determining the continued success of the student organization. Groups that flourish reflect positively upon the advisor. Discussed at length are: The career (implications) of the advisor; the organization; the student candidates; the institution; constitutional aspects; (the process of) grooming; specifying the candidate; the viewpoint of the potential candidate; and difficulties in filling an office or offices. An anecdote illustrates the problem, its consequences, and the source of the failure: a systemic fault. 1782 words, 4 pp

A 34 - Commissions: Commissions are task forces that are charged with fixing a problem, carrying out a specified mission, or investigating a problem and reporting back with a recommendation. This section explains commissions, enabling legislation, the charge (the task), commission membership, when and where to use the commission form, commission actions (a nine step procedure is outlined), and the Sunset or Demise of the Commission [When its job is done; putting it out of its misery.]. 780 words, 2 pp

A 35 - Office and/or Position Incentives: Why People Seek Office, Remain and Serve, and Exit: This listing identifies the main reasons and incentives relating to office. If there is difficulty in filling offices, the lack of an incentive will be found somewhere in this list. Privatization and Professionalization are discussed at length and the school administration, through the advisor, ought to be aware of the destructive aspects of these two, recent phenomena. 1202 words, 3 pp

A 36 - Partying - a variety of viewpoints: Partying is pervasive activity in society and it is well to examine it from a lofty, dispassionate, and practical viewpoint. Partying has political, organizational, and career aspects and these are treated here with advice. Partying can be viewed as (1) a social event, (2) a political opportunity, (3) a career enhancement opportunity, and (4) a training ground for items (2) and (3). Some rules are offered on: drinking, tasteless behavior, making small talk, developing a natural conversation opener, working to overcome an inclination in avoiding a certain person, learning names, orienting newcomers, business dealings, making on-the-spot-decisions, choosing carefully when bringing a guest, dressing appropriately, and handling an unpleasant or negative topic. 2006 words, 4pp

A 37 -  E-Communication: E-mail. the Internet, & Websites: Advantages and disadvantages of the new electronic communications and some tips on managing e-communications. 1087 words, 3 pp

A 38 - Facilities and Equipment: How to manage the organizational physical stuff (equipment, supplies) and facilities (auditoriums, fields, storage) with some PR hints. 1031 words, 2 pp

A 39 - The Political Base: A definition and explanation with some rules on how to establish, strengthen, and maintain the political base ... and how to lose it! 726 words, 2 pp

A 40 - The Library: Personal, Corporate, and Public Organizational: An exposition on the development of a personal, professional library for self-improvement as a leader/manager; the development of a corporate library (for your club, committee, or S.G.A.); the development of a publicly accessible organizational library. Any and all of these libraries are repositories of technical, organizational, operational, institutional, and bureaucratic information and history. 1885 words, 4 pp

A 41 - Web mastering the Detail of an S.G.A./S.G.O. Website: Since "The Devil is in the Detail.", these this and the following section cover rules and procedures on managing an S.G.A. website to make it most effective. Eleven rules are listed plus examples of content. 2126 words

A 42 - Web mastering the Detail of a Campaign Website: As above, but with detail and examples slanted towards the campaign website. 2277 words

A 43 - Recruitment, Orientation, Integration, Utilization & Retention: The fundamentals and detail of enlisting members, facilitating participation, and retaining members. Well run organizations attract and keep personnel by satisfying the needs and wants that are common to students (and employees). There are lessons, here, for industry, commerce, and all organizations. (Also see appendix A 10,   Organizational Incentives - Why people join, stay, and leave organizations) 2506 words

A 44 - Self-Promotion or the Gentle Art [& sometimes brash act] of hyping Oneself: [From a career standpoint, in student government and activities or in a person's life's work, this may be the most important contribution to the book.] The ability to promote a person's goals, ideals, and personal career are, to a great extent, based upon creating an image that is highly beneficial ...  almost charismatic. This lengthy appendix article identifies, defines, and explains the various methods of promoting oneself. Successful politicians have this quality, which is both a job of work and a skill. It is a constant activity. Topics covered are: Self-promotion; Hype; The many forms of self-promotion; Awareness; Being there; Showing up; Making Announcements (to groups); Appearing as a Recruiter; Getting Published; Secretary or Assistant-to Positions; Signing Publications; The Role of the Organization in recognizing and encouraging self-promotion; Announcements via Press Releases and Notes; Image building; Egobics; Networking; Walking About; Personal Appearance - Dressing (for) the part;  Self-effacement; Getting outside help (from) your Campaign Manager. 3678 words

A 45 - Slogans: Definitions and Explanations; No Slogan Can Tell It All; What a Campaign Slogan Should be (an outlined listing of requirements); The School List of Slogans (for school elections); The List of Classic Slogans (a listing of American and foreign slogans that have been, historically, very stirring and potent ... makes good reading and offers ideas for local applications). 1087 words

A 46 - Networks and Networking: Definitions and Defining Your Network; Identifying the parts of the (proposed) network; Building the network; Maintaining the network; Partying; Readings (in the PHB/SGO) which are related to Networking; Networking as a career promotion technique. 731 words

A 47 - Splintered Authority and Split Executive: Sharing the same duties, activities, and responsibilities by more than one manager (executive) is grounds for organizational trouble. Discussed are methods of solving this problem. Also covered is the breaking up a single office or position into several, e.g., co-chairpersons, etc. 905 words

A 48 - Revenue: The sources of revenues (funds; money) needed by student organizations: Appropriated funds; Funds raised by organizations upon their own initiative and by their own efforts; Member Dues & Fees; Events; Regular & Scheduled Events; Special Events; Program or Event Ticket?; Participation Fees; Donations; Internal Services provided to members which generate a profit; External Services as Revenue Sources; Overlooking the Obvious; a book review of Handbook of Special Events for Nonprofit Organizations; Keep Book!  3299 words

A 49 - Cost Analysis for a Campaign: A comprehensive survey of costs of running a campaign, particularly the large campaign (at a big school). Topics include: Cost Factors; Materials, Purchased, Donated, Recovered & Recycled; Labor, Volunteers and Hired Hands; Overhead, Utilities & Office Space, Telephone, Internet Access and Use; E-mail address, I.S.P.; W.P.P.; Web page (Donated); Webmastering; Managerial & Consulting Services; Campaign Manager; Consultant / Handler; Media Services; Sources of Funds; Budgeting the Campaign; "The Moving Finger writes; and having writ, Moves on ... "  2108 words

A 50 - Meeting procedures for Executive Councils, Cabinets, & House Councils:  In chapter M 3, Conduct of Meetings, two types of meetings are covered: the formal (and large) membership meeting and the business meeting. There is a third type of meeting of executives, officers, and managers that is similar to governmental cabinet meetings. That third type is discussed in this article.  A description of the management of this type of meeting includes definitions of Cabinet, Executive Board, Executive Council, House Council. Other topics covered are: Formal or Informal Meeting?; Regular meetings; Special meetings; Actions Before the General Membership Meeting; Agenda; Secret or Open? (meeting); Lobbying for Items on the Agenda; Planning for the Transfer of Power; The Budget.  1222 words

A 51 - Mathematical Modeling a Campaign; an Exercise in Political Science and in Estimating the Probability (Chance) of Success: Math (and other) models are used in all kinds of operations: military, technical, logistical, institutional, manufacturing ... and can be applied to politics. Math models are used two ways: (1) to run a system and (2) to predict performance of a system. The analysis of the conditions prevailing in a political candidacy and campaign can be incorporated in a useful model that can both predict results and provide a plan to control results. Topics include: What is a math model?; How do we use math models?; Are there other kinds of models? (Yes!); Credible Candidate?; Successful Campaign?; Weighting: the Relative Value of Factors; Testing the Model by Discussion; "Doin' the Math"; Commentary on Lyndon Baines Johnson's political skills in assessing a legislative situation.    2404 words; 6 pp.

A 52 - Fusion Ticket: an Advanced Concept in Forming a Winning Full Slate and Requiring Intelligence, Planning, and Bargaining: The pulling together a full slate from other factions improves the chances of winning a campaign and removing an entrenched clique or strong party machine. Topics include: Preemptive action; Big Tent and its application; Campaign machinery; Deal Making; Full Slate - Fusion Ticket Conceptual Basis; Intelligence and "Doing Your Homework"; Preemptive Strike logic. 973 words

A 53 - The Open meeting: Concept, Use & Opportunity: While the alert citizen hears much about "Open meetings" relative to local politics, the promotion of open meetings in student associations, clubs, committees, etc. is seldom recognized. Open meetings in local, state, and federal government are supposed to provide transparency to the working of government. The promotion of open meetings has many advantages to the groups involved. Topics covered: Notification methods; Visitation; Publishing the Agenda; Typical Meeting Notice (format by example); the Opportunities (stated as nine (9) reasons.  1439 words, 4 pp.

A 54 - Joiner, On Being a: A "joiner" is a person who belongs to a great number of organizations, the chief reason for which is self-interest and self-promotion. Considerable advice and guidance is given via the following topics: Making a plan; Which groups to join?; Passive or Active Member?; Credentials; Note on membership in a technical or professional society; Networking opportunities; Cautionary note: Too few organizations?  807 words, 3 pp.

A 55 - Campaign Theme and the Message: A campaign must have a theme to arouse interest and support ... and, to differentiate itself from the opposition. Defined are the theme, the message, and the slogan; all of which are related to each other. Topics include: Generalized or Specific?; Framing the Issues; Giving the Theme a Focus; "It's gotta sing!"; the role of Repetition in advertising; some memorable sentences (from political greats).  875 words

A 56 - Staffs and Staff Development: Staffs defined; A Fallacious Conflict: Acting vs. Thinking; (the) Place on the Organizational Chart; Commissions and Subcommittees as staffs; Staff functions; Staff authority; Staff Development: Two Views; "Don't put 'em out to pasture ... Put 'em to work!" (Using the former officers in staff positions).   1530 words

A 57 - Mission Statement: The mission statement of an organization tells its various publics and members what its philosophy and goals are. It is common exercise, within a firm or organization, to revisit the mission statement to assess if the organization is actually doing what it claims to do (or what its charter enables it to do). Topics addressed include: Purpose of the Mission Statement; the Existence (and referral to it); Continual Awareness of the Mission; Fixed or Flexible(?); General or Specific? ... Either, where appropriate; Chartered Mission vs. an Expansive Mission; Procedures; Is it eyewash?; Career Note (for the student manager):; On a Less Self-Interested Note:; Examples (of mission statements) and Critiques; Content in outline form; The Target Audience; the Writing; Contradictions to the Mission Statement; The Vision ("There's that vision thing, again."). 2033 words

A 58 - Organization Models, Examples, and Applications: Since Form follows function, adopting the correct organizational structure for a student association, government, committee, club, or operating unit is crucial to success. Success for both the organization and its leaders. The basics of how organizations are structured, using organization charts, is discussed in detail. Examples, with commentary, shown include: the very small committee; the small committee with a staff; the small committee with a vice chairperson; a service committee / operating unit; a parliament / legislature / student senate; an active S. G. A. that conducts many service activities; the triarchy - an S. G. A. that resembles the U.S. or state governments; the mammoth (business) organization; Getting Advice - the role of the Advisor. 1439 words

A 59 - Proxy & Proxy Votes: Theory & Application: The use of proxies and proxy votes is restricted by Robert's Rules of Order when discussing deliberative, parliamentary groups. However, in technical, scientific, academic, and industrial committees and associations, the use of proxies and of mailed-in ballots is widespread. This is proper since in many organizations all of the members cannot be present for voting on clearly-defined issues, e.g. standards, curricula, narrowly-defined budget items. This article covers Limiting the Proxy (voting) action, Management of Proxies by Various Organizations, Hazards in the Use of Proxies, Tricks-of-the-Trade, An Example of a Proxy (Authorization) with a checklist.  1472 words

A 60 - Academic Strategy - a course-by-course approach to Maximizing Learning as well as earning a High Grade: A guide to improving academic performance by giving attention to critical detail and keeping the big picture always in view and tricks-of-the-academic-trade.   Topics covered include:  Time management; Quizzes; Exams; Attendance; The Exam File; The Purchased Term Paper; Lifting text from the Internet; Purchased Notes, e.g. Cliff's, etc.; Professional Help; Homework; Papers; Projects; Learn the rules, etc.; Don't overlook the extra credit opportunities; The Gouge - an intelligence source; The Instructor; High or Low Grader?; Intelligence and the Use of It; How an instructor reads a term paper; Time Management [again!]; The Grading System how it can be worked!; a summary with a passage from the Holy Bible - Ecclesiastes 9:10  4146 words

A 61 - Operations Logbook: a useful tool from the engineering profession which is applicable to all operations: The making of a project and/or operations logbook is a valuable work and professional habit to acquire. It is becoming a standard part of the curriculum in engineering schools and has wide application in industry, business, science and many fields. This article covers, in considerable detail, the rationale and various techniques; Making book; Keeping the book - rules for entry; Closing the book and archiving it; To notarize or not to notarize?   949 words

A 62 - Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a conference technique for generating the greatest possible solutions to a problem. Mastery of this technique, when individualized, allows a person to develop a wide range of solutions ... when following the rules originated in brainstorming. [Brainstorming was developed in the 1950's and is still being (and properly so) used today as one of many management tools.] Topics: Objective; Defining the problem; Concept of Brainstorming; Setting the Tone; Defining and Explaining the Rules; Recording the Ideas; Cost / Benefit; Qualifying the Participants; Creativity; Handling the Ideas (Evaluation and Action); Uses & Applications (of Brainstorming);  1509 words; 4 pp.

A 63 - Setting the Agenda: the executive challenge, test of leadership & promotion of the vision: Efficient execution of business in a formal meeting requires the use of an agenda. The term "agenda" goes beyond the plan for the conduct of business in a meeting, it defines the vision of the leadership (and membership) of an organization. As such, it must be managed. Topics addressed include: Authority and Responsibility; The Executive Challenge and Test of Leadership; Delegation; Presiding Officer or "Residing" Officer.  905 words; 2 pp.

A 64 - Legacy - Institutional Knowledge Committee: A committee composed of the organization (student association) officers that deal with information, i.e., the librarian, archivist, historian, and curator [If the association is large enough and foresighted to have these offices and functions.]. The purpose of this committee is several-fold: to exchange information, and physical items collected or donated that ought to be cataloged and saved for future reference. The committee offers social contact, learning and professional development. As George Santayana has written, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.", this committee can provide vital information to all of the offices (and officers) and managers of the various student activities. 738 words; 2 pp.

A 65 - the Newsletter: the Association House Organ; Gettin' thru to the members: Informing, educating, hyping the outfit (the S.G.A., that is); publicizing the activities, encouraging participation, and public relations are the staple objectives of an association's newsletter. What is news?; What is Trivia?; A Formula, a.k.a. a Format; Publishing and Distribution; Itinerary (of distributing the newsletter); Personnel / headhunting (Gettin' a staff & keepin' 'em.); Doing too many things / Taking on too many topics (mission creep defined); Keep it Short!; Not everything belongs in the printed newsletter (Some stuff ought to go into a website & web pages.); High Tech / E-Communication Only? (There is a proper and necessary place for the printed-on-paper newsletter; E-Com can't do it all.); Deadlines - Work up a schedule and publish it; Tricks-of-the-Trade; The Bulletin Board Newsletter (a reduced-size example); Sample Student Government Association Newsletter Website version - an outline of topics.  2576 words; 8 pp.

A 66 - The Directory - finding People, finding Services, finding Activities: A directory, e.g. a city directory or a building directory lists people, addresses, phone numbers, services, functions ... just the things that people are looking for. Student government (S.G.O./S.G.A.) offers many services, but how can the student members find "who, what, where, when?" except in a random fashion, by chance, by intrepid resourcefulness or due to the actions of aggressive and membership-oriented chairpersons and club presidents. A formal, published directory, in many media fulfills this need. The media include bulletin boards, published books (pamphlets), and websites or web pages. The officer in charge of the directory would be the Chief Knowledge Officer. 600 words, 2 pp.

A 67 - The Marketing Function: Thoughts & Technique: Student activities need to be marketed. Marketing any activity requires first, promoting awareness and then, providing real information. The management of bulletin boards, announcements, notices on the doors of the club or committee rooms, and a notice on the doors of the officers are discussed with specific "tricks-of-the-trade" regarding content. Also touched upon is the utilization of the S.G.O. website and the management of the Chief Knowledge Officer in overseeing the webmaster. 603 words, 2 pp.

A 68 - Preemption; the Preemptive Strike; "Gettin' thar fust!": The concept and execution of "getting in front" of an issue; thus, preempting it from being exploited by (the) opposition; Managing Preemption, as a process; It has all of the characteristics of a campaign ... research, development, planning, publicizing, exploiting; "Doing your homework"; the Preemptive Strike as Part of a Fusion Ticket Strategy; Co-opting an opposition platform plank.  [See A 52 - Fusion Ticket: an Advanced Concept in Forming a Winning Full Slate and Requiring Intelligence, Planning, and Bargaining (abstracted above)]  613 words, 2 pp.

A 69 - Caucuses: Historically, caucuses were formed of members of a single political party in regular session to plan legislative strategies ... to ensure that all members “were on the same page”, i.e. were in agreement and working toward the consensus objective(s).  In recent years, issues that have transcended political party lines have created a new view and use for and of the caucus format (structure and activity). This article briefly discusses the uses and management of caucuses ... an important tool in attaining results in legislation. 337 words, 1 p.

A 70 - Holding Court; "Gettin' to Know You"; Doin' Lunch": As a public person, the politician-leader-manager must establish a structure of contact and communication with constituents and clients (those whom he or she serves). Making arrangements to meet or, at least, be available to constituents is important. Topics addressed are: The Public Person; Holding Court; Arrangements and Availability; Other Relationships; Less of a stranger; "Doin' Lunch ... Dinner Party Diplomacy, the fine art of getting closer (and friendlier with people on the opposite side of an issue) to facilitate reaching an agreement, a compromise.  1679 words, 4 pp.

A 71 - The Budget Manual: Contents of a budget manual: Title page; Acknowledgements, credits; Table of Contents; (An introduction section) Objectives of the Budget Process; Defining a Budget; Functions of a Budget; Contents of a Budget, in general; The Nitty-Gritty, the Detail of Making Up the Budget; Who is Responsible?; Preparation of the Three Levels of Budgeting; How Revenues are Estimated or Determined; Categories of Budget Items; Managing the Formal Budgeting System; Suggested Schedule for the Budgeting Procedure - Deadlines and an Example; Unspent Funds; Transfer of Funds; Integration of Budgeting and the Accounting Process; Nomenclature - Numbering the Categories and Items in the Budget; Miscellaneous Categories; Contingency Categories; Auditing; Formal Review Procedure; Approval Procedure; The Distribution of the Budget (Who Gets It); The Appendix; The Index; Covers, Numbers 3 & 4; Examples of typical, past Budgets. [A chapter that every finance committee chairperson will find most useful ... in the extreme!5,168 words, 13 pp.

 A 72 - Titles: "What's in a Name?" (And, There are a Lot of 'em.):  There is an emerged trend which names offices starting with the adjective, "Chief" and ending with "Officer". This little article lists and defines many of these offices and titles, e.g., CBO, CEO, CFO, CIO, CKO, CLO, COO, CPO, CRO, CSO, CTO, and CT&DO ... [Had enough?]. What's the Point" discusses the basis and justification for this new proliferation of alphabet soup.; "On the Résumé" suggests that if a person accepts a position, then he or she ought to make the most of it. There is even a quotation from the Holy Bible, "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest." - Ecclesiastes 9:10   [It's an amusing little article.] New, as of January 14, 08;  772 words, 2 pp.

A 73 - The Tie Vote: Handling an Awkward Situation: In the small organization, e.g., clubs, committees, resident houses (dorms, fraternities, sororities), etc. A tie vote in an office election is not uncommon. How is it handled by the presiding officer? He or she can control and direct a equitable and satisfying result. Several options are discussed and evaluated. To wit: (1) The Coin Flip; (2) The Standup, Brief Campaign Statement; (3) Vacate the Election and Reschedule It; (4) Vacate the Election and Go to a "Full Unit Canvass" with Absentee Ballots. By Secret Ballot, Absolutely (a concluding argument. New, as of February 27, 08; 708 words, 2 pp

A 74 - A Close Vote: Managing the Recount: In large organization elections, close votes are often challenged (and, they ought to be). Topics covered are: Obtaining a Recount; Automatic Recount by Legal Requirement; Dishonest Actions by Poll Workers and Election Officials; Honest Mistakes by Poll Workers and Election Officials. Since there are many opportunities for making mistakes in vote counting, some knowledge is necessary to produce an honest and accurate tally.  New, as of February 21, 08;  665 words, 2 pp.

A 75 - Term Limits, Arguments on: A discussion, pro vs. con on the advantages (Pro) versus the disadvantages (Con) of the use of term limits on the tenure of officers and managers in a student organization; A Conclusion with a personal note [from the writer ... he's for (pro) term limits]. 414 words, 1 p.

A 76 - How to Win a Grade School, Middle School, Junior High School, or High School Election; A Thumbnail Sketch: A listing of some simple guidelines that are useful in winning an election. At the end of the article, a closing comment: "Note that the above guidelines are confined to getting elected. Serving your constituency is addressed elsewhere [in this book]." 545 words, 2 pp.

A 77 - The Political Campaign Triage; Putting Resources Where They Do the Most Good: Inspired by an election day article in The Wall Street Journal ("Expecting Losses, GOP Cuts Funding on Some Races", Nov. 4, 2008), this short article discusses a "triage" that addresses the allocating or withholding of resources (money, personnel, effort, etc.) relative to three scenarios: (1) Where is no hope of capturing an office [no aid]; (2) where there is no chance of losing an office [no aid]; and (3) where the infusion of effort may improve the chances of winning a tight (close) contest [sent in THE MARINES (just kidding), that is resources. There is a short discussion on "showing the flag" to keep in touch with the district and possibly lay a foundation for future wins. 496 words, 1 p.

A 78 - The Journey from Naiveté & Ignorance to Knowledge (and, Hopefully, Wisdom) - the Editor's Tale: a student political autobiographical analysis of twelve elections (10 wins-2 losses) with the lessons learned, mainly from the losses. 2,754 words, 6 pp.

A 79 - the Vision; an evolving phenom: Every leader has an idea of what his goals are and the goals of his (or her) organization. It is something to think about. Topics include: Gettin' the vision ...; Developing a vision; Quotations on Vision and Visionaries; an essay based on a tongue-in-cheek article about President Bush and his "vision"; and the final question, "what is your vision?" 697 words, 2 pp.

A 80: Benchmarks and Benchmarking: A discussion which defines "benchmarks" and explains the process of benchmarking, i.e. setting up a standard as a goal to improve operations. Topics discussed include: Copying the Leader (as benchmark); Internal Development of a Benchmark; Steps in Benchmarking. 1314 words, 3 pp.

A 81: Conflict of Interest: There are many temptations within organizations which may allow an officer or other member to "line his pockets"; i.e., obtain internal funds or external remuneration through "self-dealing". There may be a conflict between the interests of the group (organization, et al) and the individual. Discussed are conflict of interest, self-dealing, cronyism, nepotism, restraints and controls, prevention, oversight, whistle blowing. 962w,  2 pp.

A 82: An Officer manual: a how-to-do-it manual (or handbook) that covers the duties of a particular position (office) along with the lay-of-the-land and tricks-of-the-trade. Defined are: content, definition, title and variations, position in the organization and authority, job description, job specification, guidelines, tricks-of-the-trade; concluding with a "Commentary on Behavior and Conduct in Office and, Out of It). 657 words, 2 pp.

A 83: The Laws of Delay or How to Stop or Move Policy and Legislation: Topics are: The Bureaucrat's Ways of Stopping Things, The Movers and Shakers' Guide, The Movers and Shakers' Ways of Getting Things Done, Defeating the System, Using the System, Three Levels of Support for a Proposal. 1380 words, 3 pp.

A 84: Reforming a System: Defining the political and demographic spectrum regarding change and innovation; Two Extreme Methods of Changing a System with New Leadership; "Change is a Threat", Vision; Vision, Goals and Patience; The Vision, Goals, Human Nature, Perseverance, and Patience. 1633 w.  3 pp.

A 85: A Mandate and the Problem of Overreach: Defining a mandate and the reality (really having a mandate), Overreach and abuse. 535w,  1 p. 

A 86: Dissent: Managing it and Profiting from it: Managing dissent within an administration requires an open mind, a certain amiability, and a method. 548 w, 1 p.

A 87: The Deadwood Rule; Getting Rid of the Useless: All organizations have people that swell the rolls but contribute nothing ... except a drain on progress and innovation. Described are various techniques, formal and informal ... above board and sub rosa for removing those persons whom contribute nothing except harmful actions from the organization. 837 w, 2 pp.


A 88: Ben Franklin's Plan to Achieve Moral perfection: Attaining perfection, moral or otherwise, is difficult. Ben Franklin (and, others; e.g. George Washington) have set out written rules for themselves as an objective. Mr. Franklin, in his Autobiography, has set out thirteen rules. Here they are, by title only [There's more explanation in this appendix article.]: Self-Control, Silence, order, Determination, Economy/Frugality, Productivity, Truthfulness, Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Peace, Charity, Humility. [Good Advice!] [There seems to be springing up, around the U.S., of Ben Franklin clubs!]


A 89: The Toast and the Opportunity, the Hazard of committing a faux pas* (*French for "false step" or "blunder"): A list of nine rules to follow when being called upon (or rather, being ready if called upon) to make a toast. In summary, "be prepared and use common sense". 502 words,1 p.


A 90: Defining Ideologies and Defining a Personal Position: In politics, at any level, you will have a position ... from the far left to the far right ... unless less you are like the Linus character in Peanuts. Linus wanted to be a radical but when pinned down, he admitted to being a "wishy-washy radical". 2 pp.


A 91: Laws; Origin and Structure Defined: The laws of any organization come from several sources. This article provides an historical basis from which these laws, rules, procedures, etc. come from. 2 pp.


A 92: Residential Organization; a.k.a. Table of Organization: A description of how a residential unit (dormitory, fraternity or sorority house) is organized with a listing of typical officers. The term "table of organization" is adopted from the military custom of listing all positions in a company or other administrative entity. It is offered here to guide in organizing to cover all of the functions that residents need and desire in an organized living unit. 895 words, 2 pp.


A q&q - Quotable & Quotations: a range of quotations, mainly political ... some not, but all are interesting and certainly amusing. Some of the quotations are found elsewhere in the text. The offering is intended to aid in fitting quotations into campaign speeches, presentations, lobbying, toasts and press releases. Some tips are given on the proper handling of (someone else's) quotations. Other sources are cited, e.g., Bartlett's Familiar Quotations edited by Justin Kaplan and The Macmillan Dictionary of Political Quotations edited by Lewis D. Eigen and Jonathan P. Siegel.  Good stuff, but only a start.  4498 words; 11 pp.

section A: 135,986 w, 274 pp


Readings and References

Readings and References: A listing of recommended books of value with some discussion and/or reviews. 1583 words, 3 pp

Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations: An ever-lengthening mass of common and arcane political and organizational terms, defined, and with useful commentary; it's more than a dictionary presentation. A comprehensive glossary provides knowledge that even the most seasoned politician may not know or entirely understand. As Will Rogers said, "Everyone is ignorant about something." 12,462 words, 18 pp.


Listing topics, in multiple places, to enable the user to quickly find "the right stuff". 11,206 words/23 pp.

sections R & Index: 25,251 w, 48 pp

Total word count: 347,388;  730  pp.


The publisher of The Political Handbook for Student Government Operations is The Film Instruction Company of America. Originally based in Cleveland, Ohio ( circa 1960), FICOA has been publishing technical works on motion pictures, solar energy, automotive aerodynamics, on-the-job-training, management, and political operations. 

FICOA is now located in Wauwatosa (a Milwaukee suburb), Wisconsin.


Return to Home (Index) Page


How to Order  Send check or money 

order made out to "FICOA" and send to:


                5928 W. Michigan St.

                Wauwatosa, WI  53213-4248            [Wauwatosa is a close-in suburb of Milwaukee.]


Direct price* (single copy, soft cover w/sewn binding, ISBN 0-931974-21-6) from the publisher: $49.50 postpaid in the U.S.A.


Direct price* (single copy, hardcover library binding, ISBN 0-931974-22-4) from the publisher: $79.50 postpaid in the U.S.A. Note: There will be a delay in shipping the hardcover version since we do not keep any in inventory but must send these out for hard binding.


*Books purchased directly from the publisher (FICOA) carry a money-back guarantee: 

* "Guarantee: If The Political Handbook for Student Government Operations does not fulfill your needs or expectations, FICOA will refund the purchase price provided the book is returned within ten (10) days of receipt and in good condition."  

[This guarantee has been in effect since 1974 and exactly one book (a copy of (our) The Solar Energy Handbook) has been returned ... and that was OK with us.]



Contact Us at:  


FICOA, 5928 W. Michigan St., Wauwatosa, WI 53213-4248   or


*Do not click on this e-mail address since it has some gibberish attached to confound the "SPAM ROBOTS" which march across the Internet vacuuming up e-mail addresses; Use it as you see it (or, write it down & then use it).  


Call (414) 258-6492  & ask for Hank

October  2017